Is Belize a country? What was British Honduras? Where even is Belize? And what’s the deal with the border dispute with Guatemala? Here’s everything you need to know.

Despite its relatively small size and somewhat ambiguous geographical positioning, Belize is a sovereign nation-state. Located on the northeastern coast of Central America, it is often overshadowed by its more famous neighbours: Mexico to the north and Guatemala to the south and west.

But can it, and should it, be considered a country in its own right? This question may seem trivial, but it delves into intriguing issues of nationhood, cultural identity and geopolitical significance that I’m always fascinated by when I travel. As the only English-speaking country in Central America, Belize offers a unique blend of British colonial history, Mayan heritage and Caribbean influence.

I was surprised to find that Belize is home to wide-ranging cultures as varied as Mennonite cheese-making communities and Garifuna-speaking fishing villages, all thanks to its multicultural history. I was also surprised to learn that there’s been a long-running dispute with Guatemala, which has claimed the entirety of Belize as its sovereign territory in the past!

These facets all assert Belize’s individuality and position it as a noteworthy player in regional and global discussions around conservation, tourism and cultural preservation. In this article, I explore the multi-dimensional aspects that contribute to Belize’s status as a country, touching on its history, governance and the many other features that distinguish it from its Spanish-speaking neighbours. Keep reading, to find out more!

Is Belize a country?

The short answer is yes; Belize is a sovereign nation recognised by international bodies such as the United Nations. Geographically situated on the northeastern coast of Central America, Belize is bordered by Mexico to the north and Guatemala to the west and south. The Caribbean Sea graces its eastern shorelines, providing the nation with stunning aquatic ecosystems.

Often eclipsed by its larger neighbours, Belize has carved out its unique identity through an intriguing mix of influences. It’s the only country in Central America where English is the official language, owing to its colonial history as British Honduras. Alongside this British legacy, Belize boasts a rich Mayan heritage, evident in numerous archaeological sites scattered across the country.

The diverse cultural landscape also encompasses a myriad of ethnic groups, including Creoles, Garifuna, Mestizos, Mennonites and Maya, among others. This mosaic of cultures impacts everything from cuisine to music, making Belize a fascinating study of cultural fusion.

Politically, Belize functions as a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, maintaining the British monarch as its head of state, represented locally by a Governor-General. Yet it is entirely self-governing, having achieved independence from Britain in 1981. The nation has its seat in important regional bodies like the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Central American Integration System (SICA), playing its part in regional cooperation and development.

Not only is Belize a country by the definitions of sovereignty and governance, but it is also a rich, multifaceted nation with a character shaped by its history, people and natural landscapes.

The flag of Belize.

Read more: How Many Countries Are in Central America? Everything You Need to Know.

Facts about Belize

Here are the most important facts to know about Belize:

  • Official Name: Belize
  • Capital: Belmopan
  • Official Language: English
  • Population: Approx. 420,000
  • Area: 22,966 square kilometres
  • Currency: Belize Dollar (BZD)
  • Time Zone: Central Standard Time (CST)
  • Driving Side: Right
  • Calling Code: +501
  • ISO Code: BZ
  • Government: Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy
  • Head of State: British Monarch (represented by a Governor-General)
  • Independence: 21 September 1981 (from the United Kingdom)
  • Diverse ethnic groups including Creole, Garifuna, Mestizo, and Maya
  • Rich musical genres: Punta, Brukdown, and Paranda
  • Noteworthy archaeological sites: Caracol, Xunantunich, and Lamanai
  • Member of the United Nations
  • Member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM)
  • Member of the Central American Integration System (SICA)
  • Holds associate status with the European Union through the Cotonou Agreement
  • Baron Bliss Day: A public holiday celebrated in March, commemorating a benefactor of Belize
  • Independence Day: Celebrated on 21 September
  • Garifuna Settlement Day: Celebrated on 19 November to honour the arrival of the Garifuna people in Belize

Read more: 25 Best Places to Visit in Belize

Where is Belize?

Belize occupies a distinct geographical location on the northeastern coast of Central America, with the Caribbean Sea stretching along its eastern borders. To its north lies Mexico, specifically the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, and to the south and west, it is bordered by Guatemala. This unique position gives Belize an interesting amalgamation of influences from both Central America and the Caribbean, allowing it to be a part of various regional cooperatives like the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Central American Integration System (SICA).

Belize’s maritime boundary in the Caribbean Sea allows it to claim several cayes (small islands), the most famous being Ambergris Caye, known for its attractive diving spots. The Great Blue Hole, an underwater sinkhole that draws divers from around the world, is another unique feature off the coast of Belize.

This geographical positioning makes Belize an important player in regional dialogues related to sustainable development, climate change, and biodiversity conservation. The nation stands at the crossroads of Central America and the Caribbean, drawing from both regions to define its own unique identity.

Is belize a country?
Map of Belize, from Wikipedia.

Read more: Where is Belize? Everything You Need to Know.

A brief history of Belize as a country

The history of Belize is a complex story of indigenous civilisations, colonial rule and modern nationhood. Here’s a brief history of this Central American nation:

Pre-Colonial Period

Long before European contact, the region was home to various indigenous groups, most notably the Maya. Several significant Mayan cities, including Caracol and Xunantunich, were established in what is now Belize. The Maya were known for their advanced knowledge in agriculture, astronomy and architecture.

European Contact and Colonial Rule

European exploration of the Belizean territory began in the 16th century, led initially by the Spanish. Despite their attempts to assert control, the Spanish never fully colonised the region, partly because of resistance from the local Maya. English pirates initially used the coasts of Belize as a base for attacking Spanish galleons in the 17th century. By the late 1600s and early 1700s, these English settlers, now turned logwood cutters, gradually settled along the Belize River.

Over the years, the territory known as British Honduras became an important location for logging, particularly of mahogany, under British rule. Slaves were brought from Africa to work in these logging camps, thereby adding another layer to the ethnic composition of the area.

Path to Independence

In 1862, British Honduras became a formal British colony, with Belize City as its capital. Over time, the push for self-governance gained momentum. The People’s United Party (PUP) and the United Democratic Party (UDP) emerged as major political forces advocating for self-rule and, eventually, independence.

British Honduras was officially renamed Belize in 1973, and after years of negotiations to resolve territorial disputes with Guatemala, Belize gained full independence on 21 September 1981.

Modern Belize

Today, Belize is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a diverse population consisting of Creole, Maya, Mestizo, Garifuna, and other ethnic groups. It retains English as its official language, a legacy of its colonial past, but also celebrates its rich indigenous and Afro-Caribbean heritage. Its economy relies heavily on agriculture, tourism, and fisheries, and the country has become increasingly involved in regional and international organisations.

Where is Belize?
Belize is home to countless Maya archaeological sites like Cahal Pech.

Read more: Is Mexico a Country? Everything You Need to Know.

What was ‘British Honduras’?

British Honduras was the name given to what is now known as Belize during its period under British colonial administration. Located in Central America, the territory was officially declared a British colony in 1862, although British presence in the area predates that considerably. Originally, the region attracted British interest for its logwood, a valuable dye wood. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the focus shifted to mahogany, another lucrative export.

The colonial administration was centred in Belize City, which remained the capital until it was moved to Belmopan in 1970 following the devastation caused by Hurricane Hattie. During the colonial period, the economy was heavily reliant on forestry. Enslaved Africans were brought in to work in the logging industry until emancipation in 1838. Subsequently, a mix of ethnic groups, including Creoles, Mestizos and the Garifuna – descendants of indigenous and Afro-Caribbean people -came to populate the area, contributing to its diverse cultural landscape.

British Honduras was also a point of geopolitical tension, especially concerning its southern border with Guatemala. Guatemala long asserted, and continues to assert, territorial claims over parts of the colony, rooted in historical treaties and their interpretations.

The name ‘British Honduras’ was officially changed to Belize in 1973, as a part of its journey to independence. The nation eventually gained full sovereignty on September 21, 1981, although the path to independence was complex, not least because of the ongoing territorial dispute with Guatemala.

European colonisation centred on the Caribbean coastline of Belize.

Read more: How Many Countries Are in North America? Everything You Need to Know.

Why is there a territorial dispute with Guatemala?

If you’ve ever travelled to neighbouring Guatemala, you may have since maps that include the territory of Belize within Guatemala’s borders. This is because of an ongoing territorial dispute between Belize and Guatemala.

This territorial dispute between Belize and Guatemala has its roots in the colonial era and is a complex issue entangled with international treaties, historical claims, and geopolitics. Here’s a broad overview of why this dispute exists:

Historical Background

The territory of Belize was initially utilised by British logwood cutters in the 17th century. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the British expanded their logging operations and gradually asserted control over the region. In contrast, Guatemala was once part of the Captaincy General of Guatemala, a Spanish colonial administrative division that included parts of present-day Central America. Guatemala asserts that it inherited Spain’s historical claim to the region when it gained independence in 1821.

The 1859 Treaty

A critical point in the dispute was the signing of the British-Guatemalan Treaty of 1859, which aimed to define the boundaries between British Honduras (now Belize) and Guatemala. According to this treaty, Britain was obliged to assist in building a road from Guatemala to the Caribbean coast. However, Britain never fulfilled this part of the agreement, leading Guatemala to argue that the treaty was null and void and that it retained its historical claim to Belize.

Post-Independence Scenario

Belize gained independence from Britain in 1981, with its boundaries internationally recognised. Guatemala, however, was one of the last countries to acknowledge Belize’s sovereignty, formally doing so in 1991 but still asserting a claim over portions of Belizean territory. This lack of consensus on border demarcation has led to tensions and minor incidents over the years.

Diplomatic Efforts

Various diplomatic attempts have been made to resolve the dispute. In 2001, both countries agreed to let the Organisation of American States (OAS) mediate, but a final resolution has been elusive. In April 2018, Guatemala held a national referendum, where the majority of voters supported taking the issue to the International Court of Justice (ICJ). Belize held its referendum in May 2019, also agreeing to take the dispute to the ICJ.

Much of the border between Belize and Guatemala is rainforest.

Read more: Is Guatemala a Country? Everything You Need to Know.

What’s the capital of Belize?

The capital of Belize is Belmopan, not Belize City as is commonly assumed. Located in the Cayo District, Belmopan was purpose-built to serve as the country’s administrative centre. The decision to shift the capital from Belize City to Belmopan was primarily a response to the severe damage caused by Hurricane Hattie in 1961. Belize City, which sits at or near sea level, was devastated by the hurricane, prompting considerations about its vulnerability to future natural disasters.

The construction of Belmopan started in 1966, and the transition of governmental functions to the new capital was completed by 1970. Situated at a higher elevation and more centrally located within the country, Belmopan was designed to mitigate the risks associated with hurricanes and to provide more accessible governance for people from all regions of Belize.

Despite the official move, Belize City remains the country’s largest urban centre and commercial hub. It houses key institutions and remains an essential point for commerce, education and tourism. Due to its historical significance as the former capital and its ongoing prominence, people often incorrectly assume that Belize City is still the capital. This is compounded by the fact that many international flights and cruises arrive in Belize City, making it the point of entry for many visitors, which perpetuates the common misconception about its capital status.

Belmopan is more of a large village than a city!

Read more: How Many States in Mexico? Everything You Need to Know.

What type of government does Belize have?

Belize operates under a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, a form of government that combines aspects of a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarchy. In this setup, Belize acknowledges a monarch as the official head of state, but the monarch’s powers are regulated by a constitution. The British monarch currently serves as the head of state and is represented in Belize by a Governor-General.

The real political power in Belize, however, lies with its elected representatives. The Parliament of Belize consists of two houses: the House of Representatives and the Senate. Members of the House of Representatives are directly elected by the people, whereas Senators are appointed. The Prime Minister, who is the head of government, is typically the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives and is appointed by the Governor-General.

The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are responsible for the day-to-day governance of the country. While the Governor-General holds a largely ceremonial role, the position does entail certain constitutional duties such as summoning Parliament, signing bills into law, and representing Belize at official functions.

Belize’s legal system is based on English common law, and its constitution provides for the separation of powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. This separation ensures a system of checks and balances.

On the international stage, Belize is a member of the United Nations, the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the Central American Integration System (SICA), and other international organisations. Its form of government, rooted in the British parliamentary system, is a legacy of its history as a British colony until its independence in 1981.

The Belizean flag flies in Placencia.

How many districts are there in Belize?

Belize is divided into six administrative regions known as districts. These districts serve as the primary subdivisions for governance and administrative purposes. Here is a list of the six districts:

  1. Belize District: Home to Belize City, which is the largest city in the country, this district is significant for commerce, tourism, and transportation.
  2. Cayo District: Located in the western part of the country, the Cayo District includes the capital city, Belmopan. It is the largest district in terms of land area and is known for its natural attractions, including caves and Maya archaeological sites.
  3. Corozal District: Situated in the northernmost part of Belize, adjacent to the Mexican border, Corozal is primarily agricultural and is known for its sugar cane production.
  4. Orange Walk District: Also in the north and neighbouring Corozal, the Orange Walk District is another key area for agriculture, especially sugar cane and citrus fruits.
  5. Stann Creek District: Located in the south, Stann Creek is known for its diverse cultural communities, including the Garifuna. It’s also a centre for banana production.
  6. Toledo District: This is the southernmost district and is less developed compared to the others. It is home to a large number of Belize’s Maya communities and is rich in natural resources like cacao.

Each district is further subdivided into smaller administrative units known as constituencies, which are the basis for electoral representation in Belize’s House of Representatives. The districts play a crucial role in local governance and development, shaping the country’s economic, social, and cultural landscapes.

Read more: How community conservation is saving the Belize Barrier Reef

Belize is home to mountains, rainforests, and reefs.

What languages are spoken in Belize?

Belize is a linguistically diverse nation, reflecting its rich cultural heritage and complex history. While English is the official language and is used in government, education, and formal business settings, the day-to-day linguistic landscape is far more varied.

  • English: As the official language, English is taught in schools and is the medium for legal and governmental affairs.
  • Creole: Belizean Creole or Kriol is widely spoken. It emerged from the contact between English and African languages, brought by enslaved Africans who were forced to work in logging camps during the colonial era. While Creole has a lot of lexical similarities with English, it is a distinct language with its own grammar and vocabulary.
  • Spanish: The Spanish language has a significant presence, particularly near the borders with Guatemala and Mexico. Many Belizeans are bilingual, speaking both English and Spanish. Spanish is also the first language of the Mestizo community, which makes up a large portion of the population.
  • Mayan Languages: Indigenous Mayan communities speak several Mayan languages, including Kekchi, Mopan, and Yucatec Maya. These languages are taught in some schools within Mayan communities.
  • Garifuna: Spoken by the Garifuna people, who are of Afro-Caribbean and indigenous Arawak descent, this language is part of the Arawakan group of languages. The Garifuna community primarily resides in the southern coastal regions of Belize.
  • German: In some Mennonite communities, variations of Low German are commonly spoken. The Mennonites are a religious group that has established agricultural communities in Belize.
  • Other Languages: Chinese, Hindi, and Arabic are spoken in certain communities, reflecting more recent immigration patterns.
The Garifuna language is kept alive through music.

Is Belize in the Commonwealth?

Belize is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, often referred to simply as the Commonwealth. This political association consists of 54 member states, the majority of which are former territories of the British Empire. Belize joined the Commonwealth immediately upon gaining its independence from Britain on 21 September 1981.

As a Commonwealth member, Belize shares historical ties and common values with other member states, such as governance, human rights, and economic development. Membership also allows Belize to participate in various Commonwealth programmes and initiatives aimed at strengthening democratic institutions, enhancing educational opportunities, and fostering economic cooperation among member states.

The Commonwealth offers Belize not just a platform for international cooperation but also access to consultative and policy-making processes on a global scale. Thus, being part of the Commonwealth has both symbolic and practical significance for Belize, reinforcing its status as an independent and sovereign state while benefiting from mutual cooperation and shared values.

Is Belize a Caribbean country?

Belize is often categorised as both a Caribbean and a Central American nation, owing to its geographical location and cultural affiliations. Geographically, Belize is situated in Central America, sharing its western and southern borders with Guatemala and its northern border with Mexico. However, its eastern coastline lies along the Caribbean Sea, which naturally aligns it with the Caribbean region as well.

Culturally, Belize exhibits influences that are characteristic of both Central American and Caribbean nations. Its diverse population includes Maya people, who are indigenous to the wider Central American region, as well as Creole and Garifuna communities, who share cultural traits more commonly found in Caribbean nations. This multicultural tapestry adds layers of complexity to Belize’s identity.

In economic and political contexts, Belize is often grouped with Caribbean nations. It’s a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), an organisation aimed at fostering economic collaboration and political ties among Caribbean nations. However, it also maintains ties with Central American organisations.

So, to answer the question: Belize is geographically in Central America but has significant cultural, economic, and political links with the Caribbean. This dual identity makes Belize an intriguing case of regional affiliation, embodying elements of both Central American and Caribbean life.

Places to visit in Belize
Belize has an extensive Caribbean coastline.

So, is Belize a country?

In scrutinising the status of Belize, it becomes abundantly clear that this Central American nation is a sovereign state, recognised by the international community since its independence from British colonial rule in 1981. While it’s true that Belize has been embroiled in territorial disputes with Guatemala, this has not impeded its standing as an independent country with full membership in global organisations like the United Nations and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).

Far from being an appendage of another state or entity, Belize has its own elected government, established institutions, and legal frameworks that guide its domestic and international affairs. Any lingering questions surrounding Belize’s status can be put to rest. Belize functions as an independent, self-governing country with all the attributes that confer sovereignty. Its complexity and dynamism make it a fascinating subject of study, but when it comes to its status as a country, the evidence is unequivocal.

FAQ: Is Belize a country?

Here’s an FAQ on the topic: ‘Is Belize a country?’:

Q1: Is Belize an independent country?

A1: Yes, Belize is an independent sovereign state. It gained independence from British colonial rule on September 21, 1981.

Q2: What type of government does Belize have?

A2: Belize operates under a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The British monarch serves as the ceremonial head of state, represented in Belize by a Governor-General. However, real political power is vested in elected representatives.

Q3: Where is Belize located?

A3: Belize is located in Central America, bordered by Guatemala to the west and south, Mexico to the north, and the Caribbean Sea to the east.

Q4: Is Belize part of the Caribbean?

A4: While geographically situated in Central America, Belize is often considered culturally and politically aligned with the Caribbean. It is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).

Q5: What is the capital of Belize?

A5: The capital of Belize is Belmopan, although Belize City is often mistakenly thought to be the capital due to its historical significance and current prominence.

Q6: What languages are spoken in Belize?

A6: English is the official language. However, Belize is linguistically diverse, with Belizean Creole, Spanish, various Mayan languages, Garifuna, and German also spoken among different communities.

Q7: What currency is used in Belize?

A7: The currency used in Belize is the Belize Dollar (BZD).

Q8: Is Belize part of the Commonwealth?

A8: Yes, Belize is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, often simply known as the Commonwealth, which is a political association of 54 member states, most of them former British colonies.

Q9: Does Belize have a territorial dispute with Guatemala?

A9: Yes, Belize has an ongoing territorial dispute with Guatemala, which has claimed various portions of Belizean territory. However, this has not impacted Belize’s status as an independent nation.

Q10: What are the main industries in Belize?

A10: Tourism, agriculture, and fishing are significant industries. The country is known for its biodiversity and is a growing destination for eco-tourism.

Q11: How many districts does Belize have?

A11: Belize is divided into six administrative districts: Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, and Toledo.

Q12: Is Belize safe for travel?

A12: While Belize is generally considered safe for tourists, it’s advisable to exercise caution and be aware of your surroundings, especially in less frequented areas and at night. Always check travel advisories and guidelines before planning your visit.