Is Australia a continent or a country? Is it both? Is Australia an island? And what about Oceania? Here’s everything you need to know!

I spent well over a year road-tripping around Australia, but in that time, I barely left Western Australia. Even after driving thousands of miles up and down the westernmost state (‘West is Best!’, as the locals love to say) I’d barely dented the dusty red surface of the country.

But then again, Australia is quite unlike other countries. This is the world’s sixth-largest country by land area, and when it takes over four hours to fly between Perth and Sydney, it feels as if you’re traversing an oversized land mass rather than a nation.

That’s because Australia is the only country that occupies an entire continent. Spanning the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, Australia is, uniquely, both a country and a continent. If you’re planning on road-tripping across this vast nation, then keep reading, as we explain whether Australia is a continent, a country, or both!

Is Australia a continent or a country?

Australia holds the unique distinction of being both a country and a continent. As a country, Australia is a sovereign state governed by its own laws and institutions. It has six states and two territories, each with its own level of governance, and its capital is Canberra.

The country is a member of international organisations such as the United Nations and has its own economy, including a national currency, the Australian Dollar. It has a distinct cultural identity influenced by Indigenous Australians, British colonisation, and subsequent immigration from various parts of the world.

Conversely, when referred to as a continent, Australia is a geological and geographical entity. It is the smallest and flattest of the seven continents and sits on its own tectonic plate, the Indo-Australian Plate. The continent is known for its unique biodiversity, a result of millions of years of isolation from other landmasses. It features a range of continent-worthy landscapes, from arid deserts to tropical rainforests, and is home to unique flora and fauna found nowhere else in the world, such as the kangaroo and the eucalyptus tree.

So while the terms ‘continent’ and ‘country’ are often used interchangeably, it’s essential to recognise that they refer to different aspects of Australia: one political and administrative, the other geological and geographical.

Map of Australia and its territories, from Wikipedia.

Read more: How Many States in Australia? Everything You Need to Know.

What is a continent, exactly?

Okay, let’s refine things by explaining what exactly a continent is. The term ‘continent’ is used to describe one of several large, continuous landmasses on Earth’s surface, usually defined by geographical, geological, and sometimes cultural criteria.

However, the concept of a continent isn’t strictly defined and can vary depending on the perspective from which it is viewed. Here are some common criteria used to identify continents:

  1. Land Area: A significant land area separate from other land masses.
  2. Boundaries: Continents are defined by natural borders like oceans, seas, or even mountain ranges in some cases.
  3. Tectonic Plates: Some definitions consider a landmass sitting on its own tectonic plate to be a continent, although this criterion is not universally applied.
  4. Human Factors: Sometimes, human elements like culture, language, and history play a role in the definition, although these are generally secondary to geographical and geological factors.

The traditional count of continents is seven: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Europe, North America, Australia, and South America.

However, Europe and Asia could be considered to be one continent, referred to as ‘Eurasia‘, due to the lack of a clear physical boundary between them.

Similarly, by the same definitions North and South America could also be considered one continent (‘America’) due to cultural and geological similarities.

Wittenoom Blue Asbestos Abandoned Mining Town Western Australia
Australia is characterised by its vastness.

Read more: 46 Best Places to Visit in Western Australia

So, is Australia a continent?

As you can see, the concept of a continent is somewhat flexible and can depend on the criteria used for classification.

Generally speaking, continents are large landmasses defined by geographical and geological features, and sometimes also by cultural and historical factors.

in this respect, Australia is considered a continent for several reasons, grounded in both geological and geographical criteria. These reasons include:

  1. Tectonic Independence: Australia sits on its own tectonic plate, the Indo-Australian Plate. This geological distinction sets it apart from other land masses.
  2. Isolation: Australia has been geographically isolated for millions of years. This has led to a unique biodiversity, including a range of species that are endemic to the continent.
  3. Land Area: Though it is the smallest of the seven traditional continents, Australia’s land area is significant – large enough to be considered a continent rather than just an island. For comparison, it is much larger than Greenland, often cited as the world’s largest island but not considered a separate continent.
  4. Unique Flora and Fauna: Australia’s long period of geological isolation has led to the evolution of unique ecosystems and species not found anywhere else. The continent is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal life, including kangaroos, koalas, and eucalyptus trees.
  5. Human Settlement: Though less of a scientific criterion, the human aspect also plays a role. Australia has been inhabited for at least 65,000 years by Indigenous Australians and has developed into a sovereign nation with distinct political, economic, and social systems.
  6. Geographical Integrity: Australia is surrounded by water, giving it a clear geographical boundary. This contrasts with Europe and Asia, which are part of the same landmass but are considered separate continents mainly due to historical and cultural reasons.
  7. Consistency in Classification: Most geographical and educational texts refer to Australia as one of the seven continents, maintaining a consistency in how the world’s major land masses are categorised.

For these reasons, Australia is widely recognised as a continent, distinct from other land masses both geologically and ecologically.

Wittenoom Blue Asbestos Abandoned Mining Town Western Australia
Much of Australia is arid and remote.

Read more: Is Australia a Country? Everything You Need to Know.

Is Australia also an independent country?

Australia is an independent, sovereign country. It achieved federation on 1 January 1901, uniting six colonies to form the Commonwealth of Australia as a dominion within the British Empire. Although initially subject to British law, Australia gained greater legislative independence over the years, particularly with the Statute of Westminster in 1931, which clarified that no act of the British Parliament would apply to Australia unless Australia requested it.

The Australia Acts of 1986 further severed most constitutional links with the United Kingdom, making Australia fully sovereign. These acts eliminated the role of the British Parliament and the British monarch in Australian state matters and also ended any British role in the amendment process of the Australian Constitution.

Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. The British monarch remains the ceremonial head of state, represented in Australia by the Governor-General at the federal level and by Governors at the state level. However, these are largely symbolic roles, and the governance of the country is carried out by its elected representatives in line with the Australian Constitution.

Is Australia a continent or a country?
The flag of Australia.

Read more: How Many Countries Are in Oceania? Everything You Need to Know.

Is Australia in Oceania?

But what about Oceania? Isn’t Australia part of Oceania? Okay, yes, so things get even more confusing the further you venture into the nuances of geographical boundaries.

Yes, Australia is part of Oceania, a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Oceania encompasses the islands of the central and south Pacific Oceans as well as the continent of Australia. While Australia is geographically a continent in its own right, in a regional context it is often grouped with other island nations and territories under the collective term ‘Oceania’.

Oceania is not considered a continent. The concept of Oceania is more cultural and geopolitical than it is strictly geographical. The region is characterised by its diversity, including a wide range of languages, cultures, and ecosystems. From a geopolitical standpoint, countries in Oceania often share certain challenges and opportunities, such as the impact of climate change, the importance of maritime resources, and issues related to regional governance and security.

Oceania is an incredibly diverse region, both culturally and ecologically, featuring everything from the large, arid landscapes of Australia to the tropical rainforests and coral reefs of smaller Pacific islands. The region is known for its unique indigenous cultures, languages, and traditions, which differ considerably from one area to another.

So, Australia is both a continent and a country, and it is also part of the wider Oceania region.

Australia’s eastern shores extend into the Pacific Ocean.

Read more: How Many Regions in New Zealand? Everything You Need to Know.

Is Australia an island?

Australia can also be described as an island, but this is rarer, due to the wider implications it raises for other continents. Geographically, an island is defined as a landmass surrounded by water. By this simple criterion, Australia could technically be considered an island because it is surrounded by the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

However, in geopolitical and geoscience contexts, Australia is typically classified as a continent rather than an island. One reason is its size: Australia is the sixth-largest country in the world by total area, significantly larger than any landmass usually described as an ‘island’. Continents are generally distinguished from islands not only by their larger size but also by features like distinct flora and fauna, independent tectonic plates, and in some cases, unique human cultures.

The term ‘island’ is rarely used to describe Australia because doing so could create confusion. If we were to call Australia an island, then logically, other continents like Antarctica or even North America could also be called islands, as they are also surrounded by water.

Broome Western Australia
The sun sets over the Indian Ocean in Western Australia.

Read more: Is New Zealand a Country? Everything You Need to Know.

FAQ: Is Australia a country or a continent?

Here’s an FAQ exploring the concept of Australia as both a continent and a country:

Q1: Is Australia a country?

A: Yes, Australia is a sovereign country with its own government, legal system, and institutions. It is a member of the United Nations and other international organisations.

Q2: Is Australia a continent?

A: Yes, Australia is also considered one of the world’s seven continents. It is the smallest of the continents and is the only one occupied by a single country.

Q3: Can Australia be both a continent and a country?

A: Absolutely. Australia is unique in that it is both a country and a continent. As a country, it is a sovereign state with its own governance. As a continent, it is a large landmass that is geologically distinct.

Q4: What makes Australia geologically distinct as a continent?

A: Australia sits on its own tectonic plate, the Indo-Australian Plate. It has been geologically separate for millions of years, which has led to unique biodiversity and ecosystems.

Q5: Is Australia an island?

A: While Australia is surrounded by water, making it an ‘island’ in a purely geographical sense, it is generally not referred to as an island due to its large size and continental features. Labelling it as an island could create confusion, given that it meets the criteria for being a continent.

Q6: Does Australia include other territories?

A: Yes, the country of Australia includes the island of Tasmania and several smaller islands. However, the continent is generally considered to include just the mainland.

Q7: Is Australia part of Oceania?

A: Yes, Australia is part of the Oceania region, which also includes New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and various Pacific Islands grouped into Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

Q8: What are the major cities in Australia?

A: The capital city is Canberra. Other major cities include Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, and Perth.

Q9: Is New Zealand part of Australia?

A: No, New Zealand is a separate country located southeast of Australia. While they share historical ties and cooperate on various matters, they are independent sovereign states.

Q10: What are the main differences between Australia as a country and Australia as a continent?

A: As a country, Australia has political and administrative structures, including a government and legal system. As a continent, Australia is a geographical and geological entity, noted for its unique landscapes and ecosystems.